Humphry Repton

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Humphry Repton (1752-1818) was the leading landscape gardener of later Georgian England undertaking more than 400 commissions during his thirty year career, and promoting his profession in extensive writings.

His early life

He was born at Bury St Edmunds in Suffolk and his family moved to Norwich around 1762. He was then sent to the Netherlands to study Dutch. On his return to Norwich in 1768 Repton was apprenticed into the textile business but largely failed in his attempt at a mercantile career. After 1776, when both his parents had died, he moved to Old Hall, Sustead on William Windham’s Felbrigg estate. At Sustead he had a small farm, and spent much of his time reading, writing and sketching. Around 1786 he moved to Hare Street, Essex where he first attempted a career as a playwright before deciding in 1788 to employ his artistic talents to become a ‘landscape gardener’.

A career as a landscape gardener

His first commissions were in Norfolk, at Catton for the mayor of Norwich and textile merchant Jeremiah Ives, and at Holkham, the estate of Thomas Coke. Later clients included the third Duke of Portland and the Duke of Bedford. Repton quickly developed his trademark Red Book (named after the colour of the morocco leather binding) in which he presented his designs to clients. The books comprised passages of text detailing his proposed ‘improvements’ illustrated with watercolour sketches. He added flaps to some of the watercolours to allow him to depict ‘present’ and ‘proposed’ views within the same picture. The Red Books varied in size and scope with the largest and the most impressive being reserved for his most esteemed clients. Repton produced at least 123 of his Red Books between 1788 and his death in 1818.

Sheringham Park

Abbot Upcher commissioned Repton to produce the Red Book for Sheringham in 1812. It is considered one of the most comprehensive, a mark of the affinity he felt with Abbot Upcher. The Red Book is owned by National Trust but kept at the Royal Institution of British Architects (RIBA) library at the Victoria and Albert Museum in London. In 2013-14 it was selected to be part of the exhibition ‘Masterpieces: Art and East Anglia’ at the Sainsbury Centre of Visual Art.

More information:
Carter, G., Goode, P., and Laurie, K. 1982, Humphry Repton: Landscape Gardener, 1752-1818, Sainsbury Centre for Visual Arts, Norwich
Daniels, S., 1999, Humphry Repton: Landscape Gardening and the Geography of Georgian England, Yale University Press, New Haven and London
Daniels, S., 2004, ‘Repton, Humphry (1752-1818)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press
Gore, A. and Carter, G., (eds), 2005, Humphry Repton’s Memoirs, Michael Russell Publishing Ltd, Norwich

Loudon, J., (ed), 1840, The Landscape Gardening and Landscape Architecture of the Late Humphry Repton Esq., Longman and Co, London
Rogger, A., 2007, Landscapes of Taste: The Art of Humphry Repton’s Red Books, Routledge, Abingdon
Stroud, D., 1962, Humphry Repton, Country Life, London
Zealand, K., 1998, Sheringham Park, National Trust, London