Criminal or minister: who was George Villiers?
George Villiers, second duke of Buckingham (1628-1687), was a powerful courtier and politician during the reign of Charles II (1660-1685). It was during Charles’ reign that he acquired the Cliveden estate and built a mansion, part of which remains standing today.
Buckingham had a complicated early life. Siding with the royalists during the second English Civil War (1648-1649), Buckingham joined Charles II’s court-in-exile in France, though he and the king fell out in 1651.
Relations remained awkward and Buckingham returned to England in 1657, however he supported the restoration of the monarchy in 1660 and sought the king’s favour, successfully acquiring offices such as the West Riding lieutenancy.
Their relationship continued to have its ups and downs, with Buckingham spending brief spells in the Tower of London.
When the king’s chief minister, the long-suffering earl of Clarendon, was dismissed in 1667, Buckingham rose to the top. He became an influential advisor with positions on important committees.
The Cabal Ministry
Buckingham was one key minister amongst several who became known as the Cabal Ministry. This was not only an acronym of their names (Clifford, Arlington, Buckingham, Ashley-Cooper, and Lauderdale) but also, particularly in the hands of political satirists, evoked shadowy political intrigue.
The term implies that the five men worked together, however this was not the case.
Scandal and secrecy
The secret treaty of Dover signed in 1670 between England and France contained a clause in which Charles II pledged to convert to Catholicism. Three of the Cabal, including Buckingham, were unaware of this treaty and were not happy when they found out.
By January 1674, the increasingly scandal-ridden Buckingham was dismissed and driven into political opposition.
Buckingham and Cliveden
Buckingham spent much of the rest of his life causing trouble and was sent to the Tower again in 1677. At one point during this imprisonment he was authorised to leave the Tower, to direct work at Cliveden where he was building a new house.
This was completed shortly afterwards and described by John Evelyn as a "building of extraordinary Expense" in 1679. Buckingham died in 1687 without an heir and Cliveden was sold to the earl of Orkney in 1696.