The Science of History

Greyfriars Dendrochronology

The details of Greyfriars’ past have always been a matter of conjecture amongst historians. The name ‘Greyfriars’ is actually a misnomer stemming from the 20th century, when it was widely held that the buildings here were all that remained of the Franciscan Friary which had stood next door since c1300. More recent assessment by English Heritage concluded that this was not the case and that the building was an example of a late medieval merchant’s house, probably built c1480.

The desire to know for certain the exact dates of construction had grown stronger in recent years. The suggested date of 1480 came very close to straddling the end of one era and the beginning of another, with 1485 witnessing the ascension of the Tudor dynasty to the throne. This is generally regarded as a way-marker for the beginning of the early modern period and the end of the medieval period.

Modern innovations with science, coupled with a strong passion for heritage in the local area, provide us with a more definitive answer to the question of Greyfriars' construction. In 2015, the Worcestershire Archaeological Society undertook to raise the necessary funding for a session of dendrochronology to take place at Greyfriars. 

core samples from the beams at Greyfriars
Greyfriars Dendrochronology Samples
core samples from the beams at Greyfriars

Core samples were taken from the structural timbers of Greyfriars and were compared with local climate information for the time period. Using the data as a reference point and comparing this with the samples, it was possible to accurately date when the trees were felled.

The results showed that the latest assessments of dating the building, according to its architectural style, were very accurate. The earliest timbers appear to have been felled in 1489, ten years later than the suggested date. Although this doesn’t represent an earth-shattering distance in terms of dates held, it does represent a change in how we present the narrative of Greyfriars.

The backdrop to its construction also altered with this new information. Prior to 1485, Worcester was a garrison town occupying a strategic military position on the River Severn. The end of the civil conflicts after this time may well have been a motivating factor for the construction of Greyfriars. With the risk of the city being sacked having been drastically reduced, it would have seemed a safe and sensible place to build a grand town house.

Carpenters' marks
Carpenters' marks
Carpenters' marks

The results may slighly change how we think about Greyfriars but this shouldn’t come as a surprise. There are many layers and chapters to Greyfriars’ story and undoubtedly many more to uncover. Science and history have worked together here to alter our perception of the past, pushing Greyfriars further into that transition period from late medieval to very early Tudor.