Restoring coppiced woodland in Row Heath and the Canadas.

Tree trunks being hauled

These woods were cleared and turned into a pine plantation in the 1960’s, largely as a financial investment facilitated by government tax-incentives. The crop is now mature and ready for felling, giving an opportunity to reconsider the best future use of the land. The plantation was intended to be clear-felled and perhaps another crop replanted but the economics of forestry have altered and nowadays much more thought is given to nature in managing woodland.

Over the years the densely-planted conifers dramatically reduced the amount of light reaching the forest floor and this resulted in the native plant species being suppressed to the extent that many either haven’t flowered and produced seed for years or any seedlings just haven’t survived in the shade.

Along some path-edges and in places where the pines failed to grow, a little more light has persisted and some flowers can still be seen, giving a tantalising glimpse of what used to be. It is probable that others didn’t survive the upheaval of change and that insects and birds associated with the original woods disappeared, too.

At the west end of the woods, we have widened all the tracks and begun managing them more for wildlife. The benefits of this should become apparent over the next few years and already it has been seen in the increased diversity and abundance of the flowering plants.

The newly restored pond is holding water and already has frogspawn
Newly restored pond holding water
The newly restored pond is holding water and already has frogspawn

But it remains the case that we’ll need to remove the conifer trees and develop a more natural system of woodland management to really improve things for the long term.

By listening to those who remember the woods before the pines were planted, consulting old maps and aerial photographs, as well as examining the remnant surface archaeology, we intend to convert the woods back to mostly deciduous trees and encourage a diverse shrub-layer with open, sunny areas.

Instead of doing this in one major operation, we intend to do it over at least 10 years by felling small areas and protecting them from deer-browsing, initially, to maximise the potential for native trees, shrubs and low plants to re-establish.

The wood removed will be sold and processed by local contractors and used for building construction, fencing materials, biomass wood-chips and firewood. Some will be used on local National Trust estates.

A specialist woodland-restoration contractor has already started to clear a small plot of pines where some of the native vegetation is still evident. Working at small scale with low-impact machinery costs considerably more than using large, mechanised timber harvesters but these may also have to be brought in from time to time, so that the work remains economically viable and also because some of the pines are simply too big for the smaller equipment. 
On each plot all the trees will be removed, except for a scattering of larger ones called ‘standards’. Most of the under-storey of shrubs will also be cut and allowed to re-grow again or any gaps planted up, although flowering hawthorns, hollies and some rowans will be left as insect nectar-sources.

Deer will then be prevented from browsing the new shoots for 2 or 3 years, during which time it should be possible to assess whether, and how many, of the woodland flowers have survived the dense shading of the conifer trees.

With more sunlight and the re-establishment of plants to provide food for insect larvae and birds, we hope to see a wider variety of wildlife in greater numbers. In time, a brambly undergrowth will also develop and provide more nectar sources for insects and cover for small birds to nest in.

Although butterfly numbers vary from year to year, some of the species not seen in Norfolk for decades have begun to re-appear in the county and are re-establishing in suitable places. These include white admiral, silver-washed fritillary and, most recently, purple emperor butterflies.

Female silver-washed fritillary
Female silver-washed fritillary
Female silver-washed fritillary

We intend these woods to be one of those places, as well as becoming attractive to a wide range of other wildlife.

White admiral butterfly
White admiral butterfly
White admiral butterfly



Restoring coppiced wodland update March 2018

MID MARCH 2018 Despite the wet weather we have managed to get all the tree-felling done and a lot of the timber has gone. There’s still more to go but most of that remaining is destined for use as wood-fuel over the next couple of years. We now have a massive clear-up job to do and we’ve made a start. We are currently replanting the cleared area with deciduous trees and when this (and future plots) begin to re-grow, the whole place will once more begin to look more like a typical native woodland, with fewer conifer trees.. We finally got round to clearing out the old pond at the west end of the woods, so we look forward to seeing how that now develops. There is already frogspawn in it. And while we were at it, we experimented with enlarging a couple of the wet areas down the central track to see if there was any hope of making new ponds. First impressions are that it will not be successful everywhere, although we won’t know until later in the summer. We may just have to make the best of the ones we have. The soils in this area are mostly freely-draining and natural water areas are quite scarce. Keep a look-out for migrant birds like chiff-chaffs, blackcaps and willow warblers- March is when they return to breed here. We’ve already seen the first butterflies, red admirals and a peacock. If you would like to be involved and join our volunteer team on Thursday mornings, do please get in touch. There’s always plenty to do! We are pleased to receive sightings of wildlife and especially grateful for copies of old photographs taken in these woods. Although we have good records of when trees were planted here going back two hundred years or more, few people can remember what this place looked like before it was felled only fifty years ago. Keith Zealand- Countryside Manager, National Trust (14 March 2018)