Exploring LGBTQ history at Knole

Portrait of Eddy Sackville-West by Barbara Ker-Seymer, c.1930

Like many places now managed by the National Trust, Knole’s history has been shaped and enriched by people who challenged conventional ideas of gender and sexuality. Most famously Knole was the backdrop for a triangle of intense friendship between Vita Sackville-West, her cousin Eddy and the writer Virginia Woolf.

Vita and Virginia

Knole was the beloved family home of novelist, poet and gardener Vita Sackville-West who had an open marriage to diplomat and writer Harold Nicolson. Both enjoyed a series of same-sex relationships outside their marriage. Vita’s most famously included Virginia Woolf and the writer and socialite Violet Trefusis, with whom she eloped for a time leaving behind her two young sons.

“The relationship between Harold and Vita is interesting because it was outwardly so conventional,” says Knole’s ex-curator Emma Slocombe. “Marriage is how a couple made their way through society and a union of two people of Vita and Harold’s social standing allowed them to fulfil themselves through other relationships.”

Vita met Virginia in 1922 and they had a consuming relationship until Virginia’s death in 1941. “They were lovers and spent at least one night at Knole together when Vita snuck Virginia in,” says Emma. “How secret it was I don’t know, but the staff must have been aware.”

Victoria (Vita) Mary Sackville-West, Lady Nicolson (1892-1962) by Philip Alexius de László de Lombos
Oil painting on canvas, Victoria (Vita) Mary Sackville-West, Lady Nicolson (1892-1962) by Philip Alexius de László de Lombos
Victoria (Vita) Mary Sackville-West, Lady Nicolson (1892-1962) by Philip Alexius de László de Lombos

Virginia Woolf adored Knole and spent a great deal of time at the house. She used it as the setting for her historical novel Orlando, which spans 400 years and tells the story of the house based around the title character who changes sex. The novel was inspired by her lover Vita and was described by Vita’s son Nigel Nicolson as “the longest and most charming love letter in literature”. The original, fragile manuscript of Orlando is kept at Knole. Virginia presented Vita with the manuscript, which includes a dedication, on 6 December 1928.

Orlando manuscript dedicated to Vita Sackville-West

Life in the tower

Visitors to Knole can also explore the Gatehouse Tower, the former home of author and music critic Eddy Sackville-West. His bohemian rooms house a fascinating collection of his books, photographs and music, including an impressive gramophone.

Eddy was closely connected with the literati of the day and part of the Bloomsbury Group who he often entertained in his apartments. The proof lies in the visitor’s book on display in the tower - homage to the literary and artistic establishment of the 1920s and 1930s with entries by LP Hartley, Aldous Huxley, EM Forster and Duncan Grant  (who painted a fire screen for the tower’s Music Room).among others.

There are permanent displays in the Gatehouse Tower that focus on Eddy’s experiences as a gay man in the early 20th century. They shine a light on Eddy’s time in Germany during the inter-war and World War II period and his friendships, relationships and experiences during this time.

His life mask (c1929) hangs in the Tower outside his bedroom – the attributed artist is Paul Hamann who was renowned for his life masks of famous men and women of politics and the arts. Eddy’s portrait by renowned artist Graham Sutherland hangs in the Music Room, one of Eddy’s favourite portraits. He wrote to Sutherland after he had seen the completed picture for the first time 'I must say at once I think it absolutely masterly. If is the face I see when I look in the glass. I always expected you to find me out and of course you have. The picture is the portrait of a very frightened man - almost a ghost, for nothing is solid except the face and hands. All my life I have been afraid of things - other people, loud noises, what is going to happen next - of life in fact. This is what you have shown.'

A copy of Orlando inscribed to Eddy from Virginia Woolf is also on permanent display in the Visitor Centre.

Eddy's bedroom in the Gatehouse Tower at Knole
Eddy's bedroom in the Gatehouse Tower at Knole
Eddy's bedroom in the Gatehouse Tower at Knole

“Today we are comfortable having conversations about sexuality, but Eddy was a gay man at a time when it was illegal,” says Emma. “That's why he spent time in Berlin. He could go there and sleep with whom he liked without judgement. It was a progressive place to be.”

Although fond of parties and socialising, Eddy also inherited the seam of melancholia that runs through the Sackville family and afflicted Vita and her father. “There is a side of him that liked to go to parties with Nancy Mitford and say waspish things about who is sleeping with whom, but he could also be quiet and introverted. He was a prolific writer and you can’t do that constantly surrounded by people.”

Unlike Vita and Virginia, Eddy’s personal relationships and feelings remained largely hidden. He is known to have had close relationships with numerous men, but never enjoyed the freedom to explore his sexuality with the rare openness of his cousin and literary friends.

This new content aims to build a fuller picture of Eddy’s life and add a new layer of understanding to Knole's complex and fascinating history.