A legacy of roses at Bodnant Garden
Bodnant Garden is famous for its five Italianate terraces, built in the years between 1904 and 1914. The terraces are a testament to the vision of the garden’s founder family and to the men who built them, some of whom went off to fight in World War One and did not return.
The terraces were designed by Henry Duncan McLaren and his mother Laura McLaren, Lady Aberconway. Laura was a gifted horticulturalist; she was also an active campaigner for women’s suffrage, who handed the management of the garden to her son Henry on his coming of age, so that she could focus on her political life in London. It was in his words ‘a great gift’.
The design of the terraces was Henry’s but he and Laura developed it together, she bringing her love of roses, peonies and herbaceous plants to the ambitious project. They were influenced by the Arts and Crafts design ideals of the period and the work of Gertrude Jekyll and Edwin Lutyens. Using local materials and traditional craftsmanship they created garden rooms with wide flower-filled borders linked by stone terraces, paths and steps and wooden arbours; with classical statues and furniture adding an Italian flourish.
The mammoth task of carving five levels out of the hillside began in 1904. It was a massive earth moving project done by men with wheelbarrows and carts. Granite was quarried from the estate to build great buttressed walls which provided shelter for exotic new plants such as Chinese magnolias. The work employed scores of estate groundsmen, gardeners and general labourers, as well as ‘journeymen’ - travelling carpenters, builders and stonemasons – who lodged with local families.
Building was almost complete when the outbreak of war halted work in 1914; many men from the village went off to fight, and 22 never returned. During the war years political campaigning was also set aside but in 1918 came peace, and the suffrage victory for which Laura and her family been struggling for decades - the Representation of the People Act was granted royal assent, giving votes to all men and some women. It was a bitter-sweet victory for many, including Laura, who was mourning the loss of her youngest son Francis just months before.
Henry added the finishing, iconic touch to the Canal Terrace in 1936 in the shape of the Pin Mill, a crumbling Georgian building which he saved from dereliction, moving it from Gloucestershire to Bodnant Garden, brick by brick. The design of this final terrace reflects the Lutyens-designed war memorial in Spalding, the town where his brother Francis had been young MP and is commemorated.
On her death in 1933 the Times commented: “To watch Lady Aberconway walking round the gardens with her son was to see two beings as near to complete happiness as is given in the world, and to be able to create and leave behind such a heritage of beauty is a rare and precious legacy.”
In the century that has passed Bodnant Garden’s terraces have been cared for by generations of gardeners and now delight visitors from around the world; a lasting legacy to all those who helped create them.